Gene silencing (also known as RNA interference) is a sequence-specific gene inactivation system that downregulates RNA accumulation at the transcriptional or post-transcriptional levels. USA.gov. Angew Chem Int Ed Engl. 2013 Dec 19;504(7480):465-469. doi: 10.1038/nature12719. HHS The properties of the inactive X (Xi)-compartment are known to change over time, because after initial Xist spreading and transcriptional shutoff a state is reached in which gene silencing remains stable even if Xist is turned off8. That is, a gene which would be expressed (“turned on”) under normal circumstances is switched off by machinery in the cell. Oncogenic H-Ras enhances DNA repair through the Ras/phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/Rac1 pathway in NIH3T3 cells. Elife. Nat Rev Mol Cell Biol. Europe PMC is a service of the Europe PMC Funders' Group, in partnership with the European Bioinformatics Institute; and in cooperation with the National Center for Biotechnology Information at the U.S. National Library of Medicine (NCBI/NLM). 2020 Jun 4;11(1):2817. doi: 10.1038/s41467-020-16309-2. Evidence for association with reactive oxygen species. Curr Opin Cell Biol. Carter AC, Xu J, Nakamoto MY, Wei Y, Zarnegar BJ, Shi Q, Broughton JP, Ransom RC, Salhotra A, Nagaraja SD, Li R, Dou DR, Yost KE, Cho SW, Mistry A, Longaker MT, Khavari PA, Batey RT, Wuttke DS, Chang HY. 2019 Jan;20(1):21-37. doi: 10.1038/s41580-018-0045-7. Nat Commun. 2020 Jan 22;7:360. doi: 10.3389/fcell.2019.00360. Desideri F, Cipriano A, Petrezselyova S, Buonaiuto G, Santini T, Kasparek P, Prochazka J, Janson G, Paiardini A, Calicchio A, Colantoni A, Sedlacek R, Bozzoni I, Ballarino M. Cell Rep. 2020 Dec 22;33(12):108548. doi: 10.1016/j.celrep.2020.108548. Argonaute Proteins: From Structure to Function in Development and Pathological Cell Fate Determination. “Gene Silencing”. -, McHugh CA et al. Gene silencing (also known as RNA interference) is a sequence-specific gene inactivation system that downregulates RNA accumulation at the transcriptional or post-transcriptional levels. Changes of transgenic tobacco were recorded under 2000 lx, 6000 lx and 10,000 lx light intensity. PTP1B oxidation was required for…, Figure 1. Activity-Based Sensing: A Synthetic Methods Approach for Selective Molecular Imaging and Beyond. This site needs JavaScript to work properly. PTP1B prevented H-RAS V12 -induced…, Figure 3. Here we show that the Xist RNA-binding proteins PTBP19, MATR310, TDP-4311 and CELF112 assemble on the multivalent E-repeat element of Xist7 and, via self-aggregation and heterotypic protein-protein interactions, form a condensate1 in the Xi. 2016 Apr 25;26(8):R338-42. J Biol Chem. In addition, HrHEMA-, HrPOR- and HrCAO-overexpressing tobacco plants were made to verify the genes function. doi: 10.7554/eLife.54508. Transcription Start Sites. Nat Rev Mol Cell Biol. Simon MD, Pinter SF, Fang R, Sarma K, Rutenberg-Schoenberg M, Bowman SK, Kesner BA, Maier VK, Kingston RE, Lee JT. The XCI process therefore serves as a paradigm for understanding how RNA-mediated recruitment of various proteins induces a functional compartment. HHS  |  Taken together, our data show that Xist forms the Xi compartment by seeding a heteromeric condensate that consists of ubiquitous RNA-binding proteins, revealing an unanticipated mechanism for heritable gene silencing. Golden RJ, Chen B, Li T, Braun J, Manjunath H, Chen X, Wu J, Schmid V, Chang TC, Kopp F, Ramirez-Martinez A, Tagliabracci VS, Chen ZJ, Xie Y, Mendell JT. A comprehensive Xist interactome reveals cohesin repulsion and an RNA-directed chromosome conformation. F32 GM103139/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/United States, R01 GM115233/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/United States, R03 HD095086/HD/NICHD NIH HHS/United States, R01 NS104041/NS/NINDS NIH HHS/United States, R01 MH116220/MH/NIMH NIH HHS/United States, R01 GM049662/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/United States, R03 HD088380/HD/NICHD NIH HHS/United States, R01 MH109166/MH/NIMH NIH HHS/United States, HHMI/Howard Hughes Medical Institute/United States, Strom AR & Brangwynne CP The liquid nucleome - phase transitions in the nucleus at a glance. Although the final effects are similar, the mechanisms of TGS and PTGS are species specific. The long non-coding RNA Xist establishes an intra-chromosomal compartment by localizing at a high concentration in a territory spatially close to its transcription locus2 and binding diverse proteins3-5 to achieve X-chromosome inactivation (XCI)6,7. Epub 2012 Jul 30. 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